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Criticism of communism 301 weeks ago
 
Criticism of communism

A diverse array of writers and political activists have published criticism of communism, such as Soviet bloc dissidents Lech Wa??sa, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and V�clav Havel; social theorists Hannah Arendt, Raymond Aron, Ralf Dahrendorf, Seymour Martin Lipset, and Karl Wittfogel; economists Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek, and Milton Friedman; historians and social scientists Robert Conquest, St�phane Courtois, Richard Pipes, and R. J. Rummel; anti-communist leftists Ignazio Silone, George Orwell, Saul Alinsky, Richard Wright, Arthur Koestler, and Bernard-Henri Levy; novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand; and philosophers Leszek Ko?akowski and Karl Popper. Some writers such as Courtois go beyond attributing the estimated tens of millions of deaths and other large-scale human rights abuses during the 20th century merely to the Communist regimes associated with these atrocities;[14] rather, these authors present the events occurring in these countries, particularly under Stalin and Mao, as an argument against Marxism itself. Some of the critics were former Marxists, such as Wittfogel, who applied Marx's concept of "Oriental despotism" to communist societies such as the Soviet Union, and Silone, Wright, Koestler (among other writers) who contributed essays to the book The God that Failed (the title refers not to the Christian God but Marxism itself).

There have also been more direct criticisms of Marxism, such as criticisms of the labor theory of value or Marx's predictions. Nevertheless, Communist parties outside of the Warsaw Pact, such as the Communist parties in Western Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa, differed greatly. Thus a criticism that is applicable to one such party is not necessarily applicable to another
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